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The key difference between PVD and CVD is that the coating material in PVD is in solid form whereas in CVD it is in gaseous form.
PVD and CVD are coating techniques, which we can use to deposit thin films on various substrates. Coating of substrates is important on many occasions. The coating can improve the functionality of the substrate; introduce new functionality onto the substrate, protect it from harmful external forces, etc. so these are important techniques. Although both processes share similar methodologies, there are few differences between PVD and CVD; therefore, they are useful in different instances.
PVD is physical vapour deposition. It is mainly a vaporisation coating technique. This process involves several steps. However, we do the whole process under vacuum conditions.
CVD is chemical vapour deposition. It is a method to deposit solid and form a thin film from gaseous phase material. In CVD, we are coating material on a substrate material. To do this coating, we need to send the coating material into a reaction chamber in the form of vapour at a certain temperature. There, the gas reacts with the substrate, or it decomposes and deposits on the substrate. Therefore, in a CVD apparatus, we need to have a gas delivery system, reacting chamber, substrate loading mechanism and an energy supplier.
PVD and CVD are coating techniques. PVD stands for physical vapour deposition while CVD stands for chemical vapour deposition. The key difference between PVD and CVD is that the coating material in PVD is in solid form whereas in CVD it is in gaseous form. As another important difference between PVD and CVD, we can say that in the PVD technique atoms are moving and depositing on the substrate while in the CVD technique the gaseous molecules will react with the substrate.
Moreover, there is a difference between PVD and CVD in the deposition temperatures as well. That is; for PVD, it deposits at a relatively low temperature (around 250°C~450°C) whereas, for CVD, it deposits at relatively high temperatures in the range of 450°C to 1050°C.